Tag Archives: yōga

The Film Ephemera Collection within the Makino Collection: The Uniqueness of Japanese Film Ephemera

Japanese film program from the Makino Collection

Japanese film program. Rampo (1994), directed by Rintarō Mayuzumi

The ephemera within the Makino Collection are the most vibrant part of it. Generally speaking, the word “ephemera” means “something which has a transitory existence”. What exactly does “ephemera” mean in the archival world and in library and information science? The term is defined by the Library of Congress (2008) as:

non-commercial, non-book publications in the form of pamphlets, handbills, leaflets, broadsides, position papers, minutes of meetings, information sheets, bulletins, newsletters, posters, moving images and photographic documentation.

Ephemeral materials may also be produced in a variety of electronic formats, such as web sites, web pages, web logs, pod casts, etc. These materials are typically published outside of official or normal channels.

The Makino Collection’s post-war film ephemera mainly consist of film programs and fliers.

Imported film program. À bout de souffle/Breathless revival (1978), directed by Jean-Luc Godard

French film program. À bout de souffle/Breathless revival (1978), directed by Jean-Luc Godard

Imported film program. Saturday Night Fever (1978), directed by John Badham

American film program. Saturday Night Fever (1978), directed by John Badham

Japanese film ephemera are considered to be very unique. Why? What makes Japanese film ephemera so special? Film ephemera are considered to be one of the most significant aspects of films in Japan. Film programs, especially, are extremely unique, in that all films in Japan, including revivals and retrospectives, produce film programs that are on a level not seen in the United States and other countries. There is no other country like Japan, where every variety of film publishes an elaborate program, which is sold at movie theaters only during the film’s run. Interestingly, the majority of audiences are accustomed to, or cannot resist purchasing a program when they are at the movie theater. It is like getting popcorn at a movie theater in the United States. In Japan, audiences purchase a film program instead of popcorn, or they might get both. In this way, film programs have always been present in the lives of Japanese theater goers broadening their film intelligence, and showing them the larger world. Continue reading

Yōga (Foreign films) and hōga (Japanese films): An Overview of the Japanese Film Industry as Represented in the Makino Collection

The most prevalent films in Japan could be roughly separated into two genres: hōga (Japanese films) and yōga (imported/international/foreign films). According to the Japanese dictionary Daijirin, yōga is understood as “films which were produced in Western countries. Also, the term could indicate foreign films in a broad sense”.

Right after World War II, films which were imported to Japan were overwhelmingly American and European. Therefore, most films, excluding domestic ones, were called yōga (=Western, ga =image/film). In the 1970’s, films from all areas in the world including Asian films began to enter the Japanese film market. Today, the Japanese film market is diverse; a myriad of film productions and distribution companies are multinational enterprises in the world market. In other words, films nowadays are the borderless product of multinational investments and productions. Therefore, the expression “yōga” is losing its intrinsic meaning, but it is still used as a term for foreign or international films in Japan.

* CLICK TO ENLARGE * Overview of post-war Japanese film industry. Source: Compiled by C.V. Starr East Asian Library, Columbia University in the City of New York, based on data from the Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan, Inc. (2013)

* CLICK TO ENLARGE * Overview of post-war Japanese film industry. Source: Compiled by C.V. Starr East Asian Library, Columbia University in the City of New York, based on data from the Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan, Inc. (2013)

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