Monthly Archives: May 2015

The Papers of Caroline Worth Pinkham

So far this semester, I have had the pleasure of processing four collections within “Series 1. Papers of UTS Faculty and Students” of the Union Theological Seminary Archives.  The creators of the first three of these collections had some things in common: all were born in the early-to-mid-19th century, male, and had long careers as pastors in the Presbyterian church.  All were also prominent citizens of their time: George Washington Blagden occupied the pulpit at Old South Church in Boston, Massachusetts and Thomas Samuel Hastings preached at West Presbyterian Church in New York City and served as president of Union Theological Seminary during the Charles Briggs heresy trials.  Phillips Brooks was famed for his preaching in his time and has been remembered long since, as he is memorialized in multiple published biographies and sculptures in Boston, Massachusetts and Alexandria, Virginia, and several schools bear his name.  In many ways, these may be the kinds of collections one would expect to find within the UTS archives and when I was assigned my next collection, I was ready to pick up where I had left off and add another Presbyterian pastor to my processing roster.

Enter Caroline Worth Pinkham.

Pinkham_HeadshotUTS1: Caroline Worth Pinkham Papers, 1867-1984, box 1, The Burke Library Archives, Columbia University Libraries, at Union Theological Seminary, New York.

Born near the close of the 19th century in Flushing, New York and not a pastor, but, as I was to learn, the first woman to receive the Ph.D., from Columbia and Union Theological Seminary in the History and Comparative Study of Religion, Pinkham lived a long and fascinating life, which is chronicled in her papers.  Raised with economic advantages and terrifically well educated, she held several jobs before marrying and moving to Lucknow, India, where she lived for several years in the early 1920s.  Back in the United States, Pinkham earned undergraduate, master’s, and doctorate degrees over a period of time while living with her husband in New Jersey, South Bend, Indiana, and Portland, Maine.  She was also a published author many times over, beginning at age 15 with the publication of her vacation tale “The Devil’s Hole in Bermuda” in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Sunday, August 4, 1912 ) and ranging from academic writing such as her master’s thesis and dissertation to work intended for a more general audience like her A Bungalow in India: Intimate Glimpses of Indian Life and People (1928).

Processing Pinkham’s collection was quite simple from the perspective of an archivist, as it arrived well-organized and in an access-ready order.  Most of the work to be done involved skimming the collection for information for a biographical note and rehousing.  The collection consists simply of a manuscript for an unpublished autobiography and manuscripts for a number of other books.  The content of that material, however, is incredibly rich and paints a vibrant portrait of a thoughtful, perceptive woman who engaged in 20th-century life with brio.  The collection also is enlivened by a large number of photographs as well as other ephemera, such as postcards, cancelled stamps, greeting cards, programs, and news clippings.

Daily Life

IMG_5308UTS1: Caroline Worth Pinkham Papers, 1867-1984, box 1, The Burke Library Archives, Columbia University Libraries, at Union Theological Seminary, New York.

One aspect of what makes Pinkham’s manuscript for Victorian Echoes, An Autobiography so special is that early on she begins weaving in excerpts from diaries that she kept during the time that she writes about.  For example, she includes a diary entry from when she was 18 in which she said, “A day to remember: I traversed the numerous buildings of Barnard and Columbia.  I was overpowered by their massiveness and splendor.  They surely were great bulwarks of knowledge” and then reflects, “Now in my sunset years I might add to my early diary that little did I know then that one day I would attend classes at Barnard, and eventually be the first woman to get the Ph.D., from Columbia and Union Theological Seminary in the History and Comparative Study of Religion” (Box 1, Folder 6).

As the autobiography continues, the retyped diary component becomes predominant and regular entries describe Pinkham’s day-to-day life: as a student at the Packer Collegiate Institute (“At school I had the pleasure of dissecting a poor sheep’s brain.  If I don’t understand the working of a brain now, my own cerebral hemisphere must be a hollow cavity”), what she wore (“After two hours hunting for a coat, I have managed to get one at Nuttings.  It is a navy blue corded serge.  Style demands that I should wear a mustard shade, but that color makes me feel bilious just to look at it.”) and ate (After German Club I went to H.S.’s at the Mohawk.  We made fudge.  I have never tasted richer confectionary!  We used maple sugar, cream, chocolate, marshmallows, vanilla, and a pound of butter”), the lectures (“In the evening we three heard Dr. H. at Plymouth Church speak on The Russian Revolution  We also heard him speak on the present war.  He seems to be reaching the heights of his predecessor, Henry Ward Beecher.  He hurled his condemnation on those Americans who do not show moral indignation at the indignities that Germany has inflicted”), sermons, and performances (“Mother took me to the Hippodrome.  There was one startling act after the other; Sousa’s band, marvelous acrobats, dancers and skaters”) that she attended.

FullSizeRenderUTS1: Caroline Worth Pinkham Papers, 1867-1984, box 1, The Burke Library Archives, Columbia University Libraries, at Union Theological Seminary, New York.

She also speaks compellingly of events and political issues occurring around her and farther away:

“A beautiful illustration of Gidding’s theory of Like-mindedness came up today, It was horrible in character.  Five thousand women and children crowded City Hall Park, and cried for food.  Stable articles, such as potatoes, bread and milk have soared to such heights within the last few days that Eastsiders of N.Y. find themselves starving.  It was not a reasonable crowd.  The two fundamental instincts, hunger and the desire for preservation, had been hit.  It seems criminal for carloads of food to be rotting, because of lack of transportation.  Warehouses are stored with food which the owners refuse to sell at reasonable prices”  (Box 1, Folder 6)

Pinkham also has an uncanny ability to describe changes that she senses as they happen.  In October, 1917, she notes:

“Everywhere you go, in everything you do, you find traces of the war.  Our music is changing from silly love-sick tunes to popular martial strains.  There are exalted themes even in posters and magazine illustrations.  Perhaps because of the very horrors of war, we are turning to higher and more beautiful themes” (Box 1, Folder 7).

Following her graduation from school, Pinkham held a series of jobs in offices that she describes in her autobiography.  A quotation from her diary in 1919 during her employment at Sperry Gyroscope Company displays her keen sense of observation, which seems to have informed her writing:

“It is interesting to watch the different types of men at the office.  There are hustlers and bustlers, dreamers and procrastinators, and some who are well rounded individuals.  They all have to be handled with gloves.  Each has to be catered to.  Neither wants to feel that his work is not receiving the same amount of attention.  The busier the man the less critical he is of trivialities.  The real high mighty mites do not show their authority.  They unconsciously command attention.  It is not difficult to pick out the true executive” (Box 1, Folder 7).

“Oh, the joy of a real companion for a husband.”

When she was 22, Pinkham met her future husband, a former aviator in the United States Air Service called Lloyd Francis Pinkham, at a September, 1919 dance at the Pershing Club, which was club operated beginning in 1918 to provide hospitality and accommodations to officers.  She wrote of him in her diary, “He said that he saw me in the subway with Mother.  He decided that I must be going to the Pershing Club.  With all of the activities that go on in N.Y., how did he know that?  He rushed to the Y.M.C.A. in Brooklyn, where he was staying, showered, changed his clothes, and sped to the Pershing Club” (Box 1, Folder 7).

IMG_6001UTS1: Caroline Worth Pinkham Papers, 1867-1984, box 2, The Burke Library Archives, Columbia University Libraries, at Union Theological Seminary, New York.

Less than a month later, Lloyd had left to return home to Maine before embarking on a stint of world travel and beginning work for Standard Oil in Madras, India.  Included in the autobiography manuscript during this period, in the chapter “Courtship,” is the correspondence between Pinkham and Lloyd, which continues until Lloyd’s proposal in 1922.

IMG_5999 UTS1: Caroline Worth Pinkham Papers, 1867-1984, box 2, The Burke Library Archives, Columbia University Libraries, at Union Theological Seminary, New York.

Both write of happenings large and small in their respective locations and soon after, begin to fall in love.  Lloyd wrote:

“Today I was very much pleased to receive Christmas and New Years Greetings from a very good friend of mine.  Oh!  You could never guess?  She is a very sweet little dancer, whom I used to ‘trip the light fantastic’ with at the Pershing Club, when I was a young chap and not burdened with business cares.  I believe that she is a voter in your home town, is registered as having no occupation in particular, but really does teach a Sunday School class on the Q.T.  She eats ice-cream and cake, attends lectures on the Philippine Islands, a very interesting conversationalist, an accomplished violinist, uses a royal typewriter, is very thoughtful and considerate of her friends and on the whole she is one of these true blue, fourteen karat young ladies that would just cause one to know her ‘to find something about everything to be glad about’” (Box 2, Folder 1).

Soon after marriage, Pinkham writes of Lloyd teaching her to drive:

“He said today that he wanted me to be able to do everything he did. – Oh, the joy of a real companion for a husband” (Box 3, Folder 3).

Pinkham and Lloyd’s love was lasting.  While his career (at The Remington Cash Register Co. following their return to the United States) took them to live in South Bend, Indiana and Portland, Maine at various points, Lloyd remained supportive of Pinkham’s academic ambitions.  In 1934, she noted that “L writes, ‘Sweetheart, I am very proud of your intellectual attainments, and I too, would not rest content until you have completed what you set out to do.  I am right behind you in whatever you set out to accomplish.  All my love to the best wife a fellow ever had.”  In 1935, Pinkham records an excerpt from a letter from her husband, which includes:

“While other folks find it difficult to take two credits, my wife steps out and takes eight, lives in another State, and drives fifty miles back and forth each day.  I am quite aware of the mental effort and push it requires to accomplish that, and also get the rank that you do in your studies.  You have such a keen insight into things that I always like to get our observations and deductions on my problems.  I sure could not live without you” (Box 4, Folder 11).

Americans in Colonial India

After marrying Lloyd, Pinkham returned with him to India, where they lived during 1922-1925.  For this period, included in the autobiography manuscript material is a set of letters from Pinkham to her parents in which she describes her life in India, as well as larger events of the day.

For example, in 1923  she wrote:

“There has been a great rejoicing among the natives for the past few days, due to the fact that the Government has released Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi” (Box 3, Folder 7) and, in further depth: “Great masses of Indians are becoming educated and want to run India.  They are, of course, not fully educated because of the years of suppression, and if they do get Home Rule will probably make a sad mess of it at the beginning.  There is a lack of unity among the Indians.  The Muhammedans are always rising up against the Hindus and vica versa.  Because of this fact, England for many years has been able to pit one against the other, so to speak, and rule on the side line, but things are changing.  There is really not the opportunity to invest in things out here, because times are so changeable.  If the Indians demand home rule, I am inclined to think that Europeans will be able to reside only in the largest cities and then just for commercial purposes.  If the Englishman goes in India, the American will have to go too, I think” (Box 3, Folder 5).

Combined with the courtship correspondence between Lloyd and Pinkham, these letters to her parents constitute a spectacular source of primary source material of expatriate American life in India during the early 1920s, a time when organization against British colonial rule was increasing.

“Reams of paper and a pencil make me happy beyond words.

There are many other aspects of the autobiography and embedded diary that are of great interest, such as Pinkham’s reflections on spiritual matters, both internal (e.g., on Mar. 17, 1926, “St. Paddy’s Day! I have tolerance for Catholics.  When it comes to the things that really count in life, they are true.  People should not have religious prejudice.  Why should Catholics and Protestants slight each other?  God alone is perfect.  Help me to keep away from narrow religious fanaticism!  Whether to worship through Christ or the Virgin, what does it matter?”) and external (e.g., in 1935: “Many Protestant denominations have much to learn in regard to women and their status.  Woman is indeed the conservor of the race.  I think this world would be a better place if women had a share in the management of world affairs.”)

Towards the end of my processing of the collection, I realized that beyond her connection to Union Theological Seminary, Pinkham shared something else in common with the pastors whose papers with which I have worked already.  Each of the creators of these collections are writers of sorts, whether they used the skill primarily in preparing sermons, remarks, words to hymns, or, like Pinkham, to reveal themselves in narrative or fiction.  One of the unexpected pleasures of accessing materials at the Union Theological Seminary Archives is getting to read the words of people who took such joy in expression.  As Pinkham put it in a letter to her future husband in 1922: “Reams of paper and a pencil make me happy beyond words.


Codicology: Part 3

In the Spring of 2015 Union Theological Seminary students from CH108: The History of Christianity Part 2: Introduction to Western European Church History (c.1000-c.2000) viewed manuscripts and early printed books from the rare books collections at Burke Library. Over the course of the semester they chose manuscripts or early printed books to study and wrote codicological descriptions. Excerpts from their work are recorded below – along with the opportunity to read their research in full.

Dr. Jane Huber and Russ Gasdia, Teaching Fellow

**Please note: For footnote citations and bibliography, see paper in full at the above author link.  

Chanda Rule Bernroider – Processional
Processional: Manuscript, Flanders, 1351, Plimpton MS 34, Rare Books and Manuscripts Library.

Click here for PDF of complete paper

Russ blog post_Bernroider_image 2 Russ blog post_Bernroider_image 1


This manuscript, considered a “lesser genre” of books for Mass was created to contain music for processions that came before Masses of feasts (McGatch 20). Its size, 175 x 135 mm and 36 pages, was perfect, frugal and portable for the Urbanist Poor Clares community it was intended for. This community of nuns, also known as “Rich Clares” because they followed a Rule by Pope Urban IV that allowed the sisters joint possessions unlike the Poor Clares, danced in the sacred footsteps of St. Clare of Assisi who was the first woman to denounce the wealth of her family and embrace a monastic life in the Franciscan tradition. Although the Rich Clares accepted possessions, mainly to avoid any type of economic dependence on outside communities (specifically of monks who did not appreciate the responsibility of supporting these groups of women), both communities adhered to a strict vow of poverty. Commitment to a life behind convent walls meant a life of seclusion and religious contemplation – they were not allowed to leave, and on the rare event that visitors were allowed, they could only speak to the sisters through an iron gate covered by a cloth panel. Visitors could not look upon the nuns and the nuns could not look into the eyes of their visitors. Saint Clare revered this life of absolute seclusion and almost complete silence. Urbanist Poor Clares of the 14th century continued to uphold these vows, adhering to absolute silence in the church, refectory, and dormitory and speaking as little as possible in other spaces within the convent (De Paermentier 53-63).

Els De Paermentier in a paper entitled, “Experiencing Space Through Women’s Convent Rules: The Rich Clares in Medieval Ghent (Thirteenth to Fourteenth centuries) stated that upon joining a convent, a nun denies her previous, secular individuality in order to assimilate into a collective identity. Space for private experiences dwindle as they “depersonalize” their identity. In a contemplative community such as this, liturgical songbooks and singing together becomes elevated in importance. In a recent study, the American Psychological Association touts the benefits of group singing calling it a “tool for social living” due to the hormone oxytocin that is released while singing. Perhaps this Processional became a symbol for these things – the therapeutic effects of singing together, the joy of a lovingly bonded community embedding its long term effects within the pages. Perhaps it also became a symbol for the hidden part of a sister’s heart that still relished her individuality. Upon opening the pages, her heart, her lips — her unique expression escaped unbounded. Her notes left to fly and dance with the distinctive voices of her sisters. Such is held between two aged pasteboard covers intended for a community of “depersonalized” women who denounced all things of the world: a small key to living together in harmony, pleasure, and individuality.

Link to catalog record in CLIO

Theodore Kerry – Horae
[Horae]: [manuscript], ca. 1425, Burke Manuscripts, UTS Ms.50.

Russ blog post_Kerr_image

Click here for PDF of complete paper

Within the Burke Library collection is a Book of Hours that belonged to the the Clyfford / Culpepper family of Wakehurt, Preston Hall and Kent England. Cataloged as MS 50, the book survives as a collection of more than 10 gatherings, unbound, in a plain orange box. It is a manuscript printed on parchment, measuring 190 x 150 mm, containing 80 pages. The script is formal gothic book hand, and the manuscript is in the style of Claes Brouwer, most likely produced in the Netherlands, intended for export to England. Many of the miniatures (illustrations) are cut away, with only two remaining, one of which is overpainted: there is an image of the Empty Tomb painted over to include “the holy spirit as a dove descending along rays of the tomb” (Digital Scriptorium).

We know the book belonged to the Clyfford / Culpepper family due to marginalia within the book that reads, “By me Edwarde Culpeper”, i.e.: Edward Culpeper of Preston Hall in Aylesforrd Kent (before 1471-1533) as listed on the Culpepper Family tree (Culpepper Connections). The provenance of the book can confirmed by further marginalia that reads, “This is Jhon Culpepers booke, who soo ever stealeth this booke shal be hnaged upon an hundred fute high.” John (born most likely around 1494) was Edward’s son. Father and son were part of the Kent branch of the family. Additionally, names hand written on the Calendar page of MS 50 list deceased family members providing a window into the book’s possible owner / whereabouts before Edward and John. While we know the book was created between 1425 and 1450, the Digital Scriptorium notation, “s. XV2/4” suggests that the marginalia is from a later time. Listed on the May page of the Calendar is an obituary note that mentions Edward’s relatives: “walteri culpeper” who may be the father and father-in-law respectively of those listed on the July calendar page “Ricardi Wakeherst” and “margarete Culpepyr” (see image: July) Looking at the family tree, it is possible the pair are Richard Culpeper of Wakehurst (say 1435 – circa Oct 1516) and Margaret (Culpepper) Wakehurst (1448 – 1504). Given these names are listed and not others it is possible to consider the book had been the dominion of the Wakhurst side of the family before it was received by those living in Kent. How the book would have travelled from branch to branch is unknown, although Richard’s Will does survive and in it he mentions a house he had in Kent. Is it possible, given that people carried their Book of Hours with them, that Richard gave the book to Edward sometime between Edward’s birth (1471) and Richard’s death (1516) and that in turn Edward gave the book to his son John.

Link to catalog record in CLIO

Jamie Myers – Biblia Sacra Hebraica
[Biblia Sacra Hebraica]: [manuscript], ca. 1300, Burke Manuscripts, UTS Ms.74

Click for PDF of complete paper

Manuscript 74 is a Hebrew Bible, hand-written on vellum in Hebrew script. It was produced in Spain in the 14th century and was rebound on April 29, 1949 by Ronald MacDonald Specialists, which can be seen from an insert found at the back of the manuscript. It has 291 leaves, with text on both sides, and its dimensions are 12-1/2 x 9-5/8 inches.

The manuscript is missing the Pentateuch, as well as 2 Kings 10:12b-Isaiah 19:19a, and only contains up to 3:13 of Esther. The books in the Nevi’im (Prophets) portion of the manuscript adhere to the standard order. The ordering of the books in the Ketuvim (Writings) portion is as follows: Chronicles, Psalms, Proverbs, Ruth, Job, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Song of

Songs, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther.

Manuscript 74 emerged out of the Jewish community in Catholic Spain at a time of rising anti-Semitism from both the general populace and the crown. During the massacres of Jews in 1366 and 1391, many Jewish texts and Torah scrolls were also destroyed. Though it is unverifiable, the missing pieces of this manuscript may be attributed to violence against the

Jewish communities in the region and time period of its creation. A other particularly fascinating feature that remains in this manuscript is the triangular text which concludes 2 Chronicles. The verses read:

In the first year of King Cyrus of Persia, when the word of the Lord spoken by Jeremiah was fulfilled, the Lord roused the spirit of King Cyrus of Persia to issue a proclamation throughout his realm by the word of mouth and in writing as follows:

Thus said King Cyrus of Persia: The Lord God of Heaven has given me all the kingdoms of the earth and has charged me with building Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Anyone of you of all His people – may his God be with him, and let him go up.

By dedicating an entire page and unique design to these two verses, the scribe who wrote this manuscript seems to have wanted to highlight the Babylonian exile and the eventual return of the

Jews to Israel at the decree of Cyrus of Persia – but why? As noted before, vellum was expensive, and one can tell by how close-together the words are written throughout the manuscript, that space limitations were indeed a concern. As such, dedicating an entire page to two verses of script would not have been done haphazardly.

The reason may have been related to the original owner’s family background. The inscription in the front page of the manuscript mentions Rabbi Samuel Nehardea, from whom the owner Rabbi Abraham appears to have descended. Samuel of Nehardea (165-257 CE) was a famous Jewish Talmudist from the town Nehardea in Babylonia. The special reference to

Babylon in the manuscript may be related to the family’s personal history. Another more moving possibility is that the creators of this manuscript equated their experience of Jewish persecution, which led to mass Jewish emigration from Spain well before the official expulsion in the fifteenth century, with the Babylonian exile, recalling Cyrus’s words as a beacon of hope that perhaps they too, might one day be able to return home.

Link to catalog record in CLIO


Nancy Rakoczy – Book of Miracles
Liber in quo habentur varia miracula patrata de patrocinio SS. Cornelii et Cypriani, item et varia testimonia, ca. 1100, Burke Manuscripts, UTS Ms.11

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Click for PDF of complete paper

Click for PDF of complete paper (supplement)

The Liber un quo haben turvaria miracula patrata de patrocino SS Corenlii et Cypriani, item et varia testimonia is a compilation of history and miracle stories. It relates the history of the founding of the Premonstartensian monastery dedicated to Saints Cornelius and Cyprian at Ninove at Ghent (Gatch 150). It also lists the miracles and healings attributed to the monastery. The Liber is composed of thirty-one pages of parchment written in Latin, with Flemish marginalia (ArchiveGrid). It measures 9.25” x 6.25” and its present brown leather cover is reported to have been rebound in the sixteenth century, with no stiffener or backing. The brown leather cover is still supple, though discolored in places, and when laid open, the inside cover reveals a hem of the same leather glued top and bottom. The parchment pages are written in Latin in the littera minisculat protogothica textualis hand (Gatch 150).

Simplicity not complexity is in evidence in the binding: thick threads protrude through the spine used to sew the quires together, with no additional leather used to hide these threads. The casual construction of the Liber’s binding and decorations suggest it was used only within the monastery, and not prepared as a gift for nobility. “The higher the status of a manuscript and the richer the patron for whom it was made, the more complex would be the process of its production and the large number of techniques and pigments involved” (Clements and Graham 29). When the book is opened, more threads poke between the pages. The spine has the number eleven on it, suggesting it was one of a series. At least four different calligraphic hands created the Liber. Page twenty-three had a different calligrapher finish the page; the difference in hand is noticeable. There are smaller pages sewn between pages twenty-three and twenty-four: more evidence that the Liber was for the monks’ use and perhaps in service as a notebook.

Link to catalog record in CLIO

Caelyn Randall – Diadema Monachorum
[Diadema monachorum] : [manuscript], ca. 1080, Burke Manuscripts, UTS Ms.6.


Russ blog post_Randall_image 1 Russ blog post_Randall_image 2

Click for PDF of complete paper

This codex was most likely produced in Germany in the 11th-12th century, but contains copies of texts from as early as the 6th century (Digital scriptorium). The following texts are included: De varietate liborum by Haymo of Halberstadt, Doctrina by Severinus, Historia ecclesiastica by Bede, Vita S. Fursei, Epistola XX by Boniface of Mainz, Expositio veteris ac novi testamenti by Paterius notaries Gregorii I, and Vita S. Bonifatii Moguntini by Willibaldus (Digital Scriptporium). Among these texts are various theological and exegetical pieces, as well as letters and hagiographies of British and Irish Saints. The presence of the latter suggests that while this codex was likely produced in Germany, it may have been used in a monastery in the region that would become England and/or reflects changing political allegiances in the region. The diversity of texts included in this codex may reflect diverse, everyday-needs expressed in a monastic community. This supposition is supported by the physical properties of the book, most notably the leather straps running from the back cover to the front cover as well as vastly different sized vellum pages and text size and font, among other properties.

The inclusion of the Diadema Monachorum points to a communal, monastic use of this codex. Smaragdus penned the Diadmema Monachorum at the Monastery of St. Mihiel in the early 9th century and was a popular monastic reformer in the Carolingian period. One of the hallmarks of educational reform in the Carolingian period was Latin literacy, which marked a distinction between sacred and everyday language (Poneese 62-63). Thus the Diadema, written entirely in Latin, is a testament to the monastic reform of the Carolingian period indicative of Charlemagne’s push to bring the land/people under his control into an “Ideal Christian Society” (Ponesse 64). Used as a community text within the monastery at St. Mihiel, the diadema was a compendium of “patristic spirituality and biblical exegesis intended to be read as a companion text to Rule of St. Benedict” (Ponesse 72) The inclusion of the Diadema in this codex suggests that this book was also used in a monastery concerned with the rules that governed monastic life.

Link to catalog record in CLIO






Saying Good bye to the Burke Library…

May 15, 2015


Well, the time has come to face the reality that this wonderful experience at the Burke Library Archives is coming to an end. It has been a delightful semester of learning the basics of processing collections and just understanding the Burke Archives as a whole—the various record groups and how they interrelate with one another. Additionally, interacting with staff, other interns, and learning about the history of the Burke Library and Union Theological Seminary (UTS) has been such a positive experience. As I look back at my final weeks here, I am impressed that I have completed the following four collections: the Walter Rauschenbusch Papers, Paul Edwin Spiecker Papers, Henry Smith Leiper Papers, and Josiah Strong Papers. This final collection proved somewhat challenging, as the Strong Papers have been organized and reorganized by many people throughout the years. In addition to the Finding Aid for the Strong Papers, I worked on a detailed inventory that is available for users to better understand what the collection contains.

Rev. Strong was an influential figure in the Theological world during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He was a leader in the Social Gospel Movement, and served as Secretary of the Evangelical Alliance for a brief time. He created the League for Social Service, and published many influential books, among these Our Country and The New Era. A NY Times article about the League was published in 1899 and can be viewed here: Strong’s two daughters, Elsie and Margery, wanted to publish a biography about their Father after his death, and the papers that I processed contain manuscripts of the biography that various people were involved with over many decades. The collection also contains two boxes of correspondence that I delved into. It was incredible to read the letters that were written from the 1930s until the late 1960s between Elsie, Margery, and others who knew Strong or were assisting with the biography. In reading some of these letters, a narrative unfolds which paints a picture of two daughters who really loved their father. They wanted him portrayed as the great man he was. I have no doubt that this collection will prove valuable to researchers studying Rev. Strong.

In looking back at my time working at the Burke, I am proud of my accomplishments. In addition to the processed collections, I have had the opportunity to contribute FA’s to Academic Commons (AC), the Columbia University digital repository. AC is a tool that enables the archivists to track which and how often collections are accessed online, so learning about how metrics plays a part in seeking funding has been informative. I have also learned about Archives Space, which is an open-source information management application for describing, managing, and providing access to archives, manuscripts, and digital objects. I appreciated Brigette taking the time to show the interns her professional portfolio and demonstrate how one can go about creating a website. I feel confident that I have gained practical skills for my future, and have learned about some of the challenges in maintaining a library and archive.

I really enjoyed participating in the intern activities that were organized by Columbia University, such as getting a tour of many of CU’s libraries. It was interesting to see how other libraries are structured and operate. Speaking of interns, it was a pleasure working alongside Kate and Dave these past few months, and I will always look back fondly at our times sharing stories about the collections we were working on. I want to thank Brigette for being a wonderful mentor and always being so positive and enthusiastic about the work. Thank you to Beth Bidlack, Director, for her support and graciousness. Thank you to Matt, Betty, Ruth, Liz and the rest of the staff and student workers for their guidance and care. I will really miss the Burke!

Codicology: Part 2

In the Spring of 2015 Union Theological Seminary students from CH108: The History of Christianity Part 2: Introduction to Western European Church History (c.1000-c.2000) viewed manuscripts and early printed books from the rare books collections at Burke Library. Over the course of the semester they chose manuscripts or early printed books to study and wrote codicological descriptions. Excerpts from their work are recorded below – along with the opportunity to read their research in full.

Dr. Jane Huber and Russ Gasdia, Teaching Fellow

**Please note: For footnote citations and bibliography, see paper in full at the above author link.  


Derrick Jordans – Multaqā al-abhur
Multaqā al-abhur, Burke Manuscripts, Arabic MS13

Click here for PDF of the complete paper

This 16th century book is 21cm in height, 10 cm wide and 2.5 cm deep. The cover of the book is made of wood covered in purple leather. On the front and back covers of the book, there are impressions in the upper and bottom corners which are characteristic of tooled and stamped letter binding. The impressions in the corners of the book were made by a method of stamping the books with irons, a technique prominent in early Islamic bookmaking.   Another characteristic of tool and stamped letter binding would be the “flap” design of the cover of the book, where the flap must be lifted up so that the contents of the book can be accessed. The flap which is a part of the cover, is 4.5 cm in width from the longest point of the flap to the edge of the cover, and 3.5 cm at its shortest point to the edge of the cover. This traditional Arab style binding had Persian influence and dominated leather binding from the 16th century onward and was a method of binding similar to yet different from Ottoman style binding which used intricate European influenced floral patterns and art in the book .

Link to collection level catalog record in CLIO


Stephanie Gannon – Bible 1478
Biblia (Low German/Niederdeutsch) : with glosses according to Nicolaus de Lyra’s postils, Heinrich Quentell, Cologne, ca. 1478, Rare Books collection/Union Rare Folio, CB80 1480
CB80 1480.

 Click here for PDF of the complete paper


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This bible was printed in Cologne, where Germany’s second oldest university was founded in 1388. Cologne was also the seat of the Catholic Archdiocese until 1525.[1] Nicole Howard writes in her work The Book: The Life Story of a Technology that there was a “diaspora”[2] of printers from Mainz, where printing was invented by Gutenberg. She notes that the archbishop of Mainz and his troops had sacked the city in 1462, which contributed to an unstable business climate. Printers fled the city looking for business opportunities and a stable political environment.[3] According to Howard, Cologne was their first destination. The university provided them with a clear market for their books.

Although this bible lacks a colophon, or a label at the back of the earliest books identifying the printer and place of publication, the Burke Library record designates Heinrich Quentell as the publisher. However, different sources I consulted contend that Bartholomaeus von Unckel was the publisher of the two large Cologne bibles, one of which was in the Lower Saxon dialect, the other in the West Low German dialect. While von Unckel was in fact the publisher, the financing and the printing were likely in the hands of a consortium, whose main financial backer was Johann Helman, the master of the mint for the Kaiser and a Cologne-based notary.[4] Ferdinand Geldner argues that since it’s unlikely that Unckel owned his own printing press, he probably worked with Heinrich Quentell, who was just starting out in the business at the time, to bring out these editions. [5] Indeed, editor Christoph Reske verifies this fact in his excellent reference guide on early German publishing. Quentell was active as a publisher from 1478-1501 and founded one of the most important publishing dynasties of Cologne, printing, among other things, theological and liturgical texts as well as works for university lectures.[6] It is fascinating to think that one of Quentell’s very first projects was such an ambitious undertaking. For various reasons, these two editions of the Bible must have been expensive and technically challenging.

Link to catalog record in CLIO

Emily Hamilton – 1523 Luther New Testament
Ihesus, Das New Testament teütsch, Johann Schott Strassburg, 1523; Rare Books collection/Union Rare Folio.

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This copy is missing the title page but includes interesting printing elements that begin after that first page. As early as the third page we can see where the ink from the first woodcut has stained the page facing it, a detail found near other heavily inked texts, as well. We know demand for Luther’s New Testament was high enough to warrant multiple printings in this second year alone; perhaps it was high enough to warrant gathering the pages for sale or binding before they had completely dried! In the listing of the books of the New Testament, as Edwards points out, Luther changes the format for those books which fall outside of his “canon within the canon” – that is, books he finds objectionable and less important than the others – separately from the others, and fails to assign the names in their titles the prefix of “Sanct” given to the others. So, where we read “Sanct Matthes” in the beginning, we only read “Jacobus” in the latter section. Some of Luther’s other opinions about the text that can be seen in his printed translation of the New Testament are found in the commentary. As previously noted, this copy kept Luther’s commentary in the margins where it was originally placed. Even a non-German speaker can see where Luther engaged the text the most by his rate of glossing, found most frequently in Romans at a rate of 2.5 glosses per page, most of which were on Luther’s essential themes of law and gospel (Edwards 117)! Given Romans’ status as one of the greatest influences on Luther as well as the location of much of Luther’s arguments for his own theological work, it is no surprise to see a long preface here as well.

This section is where readers have left the strongest record of their engagement with the text. At least two if not three different sets of handwriting and ink are found in this section and there is marginalia in the form of hands pointing to texts (manipula), illustrations, written notes, and possibly other notations. There is more marginalia scattered throughout the volume, but no one book with as high a proportion as this one. It is clear that whatever other reasons the owners and readers may have had for purchasing and making use of this book, their engagement with this particular book was as heavily emphasized as Luther’s own. It is likely that this engagement is precisely because of the references that Luther made along the margins to guide reading, though certainly it is also possible that the reader had previously read the text in Latin or even in Greek and was agreeing or arguing with changes that Luther made in his translation. Their personalities even shine through: one particularly fastidious writer has drawn many hands pointing their index finger at the text to pay attention to and has carefully each their own individualized cuff, while another writer has more sloppily drawn illustrations like faces in letters that are accompanied by large ink stains.

Link to catalog record in CLIO


Hunter Beezely – Gospel Book
[Gospels] : [manuscript], ca. 1340; Manuscripts collection, UTS Ms. 69

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This book is believed to have originated at the Iveron monastery in Mount Athos, Greece. On January 15, 1942, Union Theological Seminary (henceforth referred to as UTS) purchased this manuscript from Vassilios Iatropoulos of Denver, Colorado, and New York City.   This document is believed to have been originally purchased by Iatropoulos within Moscow, however this is largely uncertain. This manuscript is dated approximately to the 14th Century.

At some point this text found its way from Constantinople to the Iveron monastery in Greece. Established some time in between 980-983, the monastery became an influential site for the Greek Eastern Orthodox tradition. This monastery prides itself on its large library of more than 2,000 manuscripts, 15 liturgical scrolls, and 20,000 books in Gregorian, Greek, Hebrew, and Latin as well as its extensive collection of religious relics.

The manuscript is a bound collection of texts, written in Greek, with few Greek annotations likely written by a scribe or later reader. The texts included are as follows: (1) Preface to the Gospels, (2) Preface to the Lectionary of the Gospels, (3) The Gospel of Matthew, (4) The Chapter Titles to the Gospel of Mark, (5) Preface to the Gospel of Mark, (6) The Gospel of Mark, (7) The Gospel of Luke, (8) Chapter Titles to The Gospel of John, and (9) The Gospel of John. The scribe to these texts is Hieromonk Gennadios of the Hodegon Monastery and the script used is Vertical calligraphic minuscule. The ornamental decorations within the heading to each section of texts is believed to have been done by Gennadios (though this is largely uncertain).

Link to catalog record in CLIO


Kaitlyn Butler and Stuart Kay– Qur’an commentaries
Majmū at al-tafāsīr, Burke Manuscripts, Arabic MS 7

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Though it was cataloged as a Qur’an manuscript in the original 1980’s Byrnes catalog of the Burke Library, Arabic MS7 is actually a Qur’an commentary. This is readily evident when the Arabic MS7 manuscript is compared to other Qur’ans produced in similar eras like the Burke’ Library’s MS 4. Like the Arabic MS7 commentary, this Qur’an is also believed to have been produced during the Ottoman era. The book is distinct in its consistency of format. The handwriting is consistent throughout the entirety of the text and likely written by the same scribe. The text is further evenly situated within the margins of the pages indicating the care and craftsmanship that went into its drafting. The size of the font in the Qu’ran is also slightly larger making it easier to read for various purposes.

Given the presence of the term “waqf” on the inside cover, the original owner dedicated the manuscript to an Islamic endowment following his/her death. “Waqf” refers to a compulsory donation of a portion of an individual’s wealth to a religious institution.   Written in English on the inside cover, the text is labeled, “Qur’an Commandments for Islam,” which is theoretically the title of the commentary. Further, the manuscript is likely of Ottoman origin given the style of binding and the cover art. The outside cover is made of wood though it is wrapped in a decorative paper. The marbled design on the decorative paper is likely characteristic of its Ottoman origins. The text, however, is also unique in that, unlike manuscripts of a similar era, the binding and pages are cropped to be of even dimensions (7.8” and 5.5”).

Speculation that the text is of Ottoman origin is further supported given the presence of the word “teke.” The manuscript was likely given by the original owner to a Sufi monastery to which the term refers. The term itself, as compared to other terms for similar Islamic monastic institutions, was first used in the Ottomon Turkish context and may be idiosyncratic to it. Teke derives from the term taqiyya, an important concept in Twelver Shiism. The term “teke” therefore may indicates that it was donated to a Sufi dervish monastery. The term began to take precedence over the more common term “zawiya” in Turkey around the 10th/16th centuries when it began to refer more specifically to an Ottomon network of brotherhoods, more stable and permanent institutions, that was responsible for the needs of mystic communities and controlled by the state.   Though, it is worth noting that there is currently no certainty regarding the distinction between “tekke” and other terms for Sufi monastic communities beyond this geographical and historical knowledge. The text further has an original “call number” written on the underside of book such that it could be identified if it was stacked with others when it was laid flat. This tells the modern observer how the Sufi community in which it was originally kept stored and organized their texts.

Link to collection level catalog record in CLIO

Codicology: Part 1


In the Spring of 2015 Union Theological Seminary students from CH108: The History of Christianity Part 2: Introduction to Western European Church History (c.1000-c.2000) viewed manuscripts and early printed books from the rare books collections at Burke Library. Over the course of the semester they chose manuscripts or early printed books to study and wrote codicological descriptions. Excerpts from their work are recorded below – along with the opportunity to read their research in full.

Dr. Jane Huber and Russ Gasdia, Teaching Fellow

**Please note: For footnote citations and bibliography, see paper in full at the above author link.  


Maureen Dean – James Wood’s Spanish Inquisition Manuscript
James Washington Wood, Spanish Inquisition manuscript, ca. 1720.
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The Spanish Inquisition Records, 1728-30, records the full trials records of Juan Panis of Zaptero de Viejo accused of heretical blasphemy in Barcelona. The charges are for “Blasphemy Against the Pope, Benedict XIII, on the occasion of the Papal Jubilee of 1725; Against the Sacrament of Mass and Confession; Blasphemey against the Sixth Commandment; and Being a blasphemer and denier of God and the Holy Catholic Faith.”

The Manuscript is a commonplace paper-book that is used for the practical purpose of bureaucratic record keeping. The book is twelve and a half inches high, nine inches wide and two inches deep. There is no cover nor back. It has two hundred and twenty pages and all the pages except one are made from handmade linen paper as indicated by its deckle fore-edges. The pages are stitched together as different testimonies are inserted as the case progressed. Consequently the spine is frayed, and at parts of the book where sections have been inserted it also appears as if pages are missing.


Kathryn Berg – Book of Hours
[Horae] : [manuscript], ca.1450; Burke Manuscripts, UTS MS49.

Click here for PDF of complete paper

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It was not unusual for the “Books of Hours,” like other medieval manuscripts, to contain illustrations of animals, often in the decorative borders. Though at first glance, these appear to be random and whimsical drawings (of, for example, a unicorn, or a monkey), they, in fact, had theological meaning. In antiquity and on into the Middle Ages, animal species signified particular meaning in the cosmos and were often used to illustrate spiritual lessons. Monasteries used bestiaries (which tended to be didactic) as teaching texts. So too, Books of Hours, including the Book, used animals for symbolic purposes, with the animals acting (like the illuminations themselves) as comprehension or memory tools, and to appeal to the reader. The animals in the Book, like those in medieval bestiaries, are vividly animated and compelling, in essence acting as medieval carriers of subliminal messages by reaching the “oculum imaginationis.”

Link to catalog record in CLIO


Leigh Britton – Aurora, Peter Riga
[Aurora, sive Biblia versificata] : [manuscript], ca.1300; Burke Manuscripts, UTS MS53.

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The title of this manuscript is “The Aurora” written by Peter Riga. Born in, France in 1140, Peter Riga grew up in a middle-class household. He studied the arts, philosophy, and theology in the schools of Paris, and later became known as a renowned poet. Influenced by John Gower, he was considered a master theologian and became a regular canon at Reims Cathedral. Aware of his poetic and theologically critical mind, his colleagues encouraged him to draw allegorical parallels of the Pentateuch. Upon completion of this work, “he called his book Aurora, for just as aurora dissipates darkness of night, so too his book, dissipating the darkness and obscurities of the Old Testament, glows with lightning flashes of truth and shining sparks of allegories. And just as the angel, after nocturnal wrestling with Jacob, said to him “Let me go; it is Aurora,” so too, after wrestling with his book, he can say these same words, “Dimitte me; aurora est.” “The Aurora illustrates the medieval concept of Scripture as a ‘fount of living water’ flowing into new channels in answer to new needs. An anonymous preface offers the poem to its readers as more valuable than the Pentateuch: Peter Riga wrote in verse, not prose, and his allegories added Christ’s pearls to Moses’ diamond, a conceit derived from Peter’s own preface.”   This description of Riga’s work shows the profound impact that “The Aurora” made during the middle ages and suggests its success in shifting interpretations of Scripture so that it may be useful and practical giving the current climate and conditions of the time. Due to his poetic genius and critical mind, he also brought new life and appreciation to Scripture. Beryl Smalley posits “Peter forestalls boredom by rhetorical amplification.”

Link to catalog record in CLIO


Casey Donahue – Aurora, Peter Riga
[Aurora, sive Biblia versificata] : [manuscript], ca.1300; Burke Manuscripts, UTS MS53.
Click here for PDF of complete paper

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This manuscript of the Aurora sive Biblia Versificata by Peter Riga was copied in Florence between the years 1300 and 1399. It contains 157 leaves of vellum; were the manuscript numbered like a modern text, it would contain 314 pages. Pencil markings added by modern scholars appear in the upper left hand corner of each leaf, creating the only system of reference visible to the modern observer. Though the leaves appear to vary slightly in size – due, perhaps, to the binding process or to the actual dimensions of the vellum – each leaf is approximately 240 x 40 mm. The texture of the vellum ranges from thick and stiff, like a piece of construction paper soaked and dried, to a membrane-like quality so delicate and thin that it is slightly transparent. The color of the vellum also varies. Some leaves are the off white of a modern textbook page (f.18v); others have yellowed the way one might expect in an ancient text, with darkened edges and curling corners (f.63). Some appear to be stained: the color is uneven and splotchy, ranging from off white to light brown (f.29). Perhaps most striking to the modern eye are those leaves that were not scraped thoroughly enough to remove the hair follicles of the animal skin, so that the leaves are speckled with black spots, no larger than pinpricks, so numerous and close together that the vellum appears to be solid gray from a few feet away (f.19v). On some leaves the spots are larger – around 2 mm – and therefore remain visible at a distance (f. 27v).

Link to catalog record in CLIO


Miles Goff – Trees of Consanguinity, Affinity and Spiritual Cognition
Arbores consanguinitatis et affinitatis : [manuscript], 1483; Burke Manuscripts, UTS MS8

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Johannes Andreae did not invent the ideas of the Trees of Consanguinity, Affinity and Spiritual Cognition, but he did create these glosses to reflect the canon law understandings of Pope Boniface VIII’s decretals. We can see in the pictures that all three drawings have to do with the authority of the Catholic Church, as evidenced by the Pope’s tiara on the Tree of Consanguinity, the Bishop’s miter on the Tree of Affinity, and the Cardinal’s hat on the Tree of Spiritual Cognition. The idea of writing down canon law was not new, even laws of consanguinity. As early as 615 CE Isadore of Seville produced an analysis of the blood-lines in families as part of his Etymologies. But the arrangement of this knowledge in “trees” was something that gained more popularity in the 12th and 13th centuries.   What we can know about the work Johannes Andreae did was that his glosses for Liber Sextus Decretalium were published in 45 different editions between 1473 and 1500.   It is understandable then, that they would have had a rather wide circulation, and been an interesting challenge for anyone hoping to practice their scribal work.

Johannes Andreae lived during a time of the rising influence on canon law within the church, and his professional credentials as a canon law expert who taught in Padua and in Pisa well-prepared him for employment as one of Pope Boniface VIII’s most well-known canon lawyers.   Boniface VIII himself was an expert in canon law, and used his legal knowledge to help administer and extend his power as pope. “Outside of the pages of poets and historians, his [Boniface’s] activities were detailed minutely by an army of lawyers. He spoke for himself through his resounding bulls, for loving the law above all other intellectual activities, it was through it that he best expressed himself”   The increasing importance of canon law created a whole class of lawyers, “portrayed here on the fourteenth-century tomb of a professor in the legal faculty of the University of Bologna.” Johannes Andreae was one of those foot soldiers, adding a gloss of the trees in this manuscript to Boniface’s collection Liber Sextus Decretalium—to “the five books of the official collection made by Gregory IX he added in 1298 a sixth, the Sext, which brought the Church’s law up to date. The new book included no less than 251 of Boniface’s own decretals.”   Pope Boniface VIII’s legal advances also won him “innumerable enemies” including reproach from Dante in his Divine Comedy.   Pope Boniface VIII was well-known for his conflict with King Philip IV which led to Boniface’s termination. But this conflict can also be seen as a conflict between canon law and civil law. “Canon law was papal law, and the growing dominance of law within the Church was a key factor in the establishing of the papacy at the heart of the Church.”   The rising development of civil law would take Pope Boniface VIII and his canon lawyers like Johannes Andreae by surprise.

Link to catalog record in CLIO

Codicology: Introduction

Codicology: The study or science of manuscripts and their interrelationships.

For the next four Thursdays we are pleased to offer a series of blog posts featuring excerpts of Union Theological Seminary student work.

From Dr. Jane Huber and Russ Gasdia, Teaching Fellow: 

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In the Spring of 2015 Union Theological Seminary students from CH108: The History of Christianity Part 2: Introduction to Western European Church History (c.1000-c.2000) viewed manuscripts and early printed books from the rare books collections at Burke Library. Over the course of the semester they chose manuscripts or early printed books to study and wrote codicological descriptions. Excerpts from their work are recorded below – along with the opportunity to read their research in full.

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With thanks to Elizabeth Call and Matthew Baker of the Burke Library for collaborating with us and for assisting the students in their research.  The Burke Library provides an extraordinary opportunity for students to engage with material history in the present moment.


Final Reflections and Thanks

Hey again, I cannot believe my time here at the Burke Library is coming to a close so soon. These past three weeks have absolutely flown by and I have learned so much in such a relatively short period of time. I have greatly appreciated the friendly nature of the Burke Library staff who have been more than happy to answer any questions I have had and assist me when I have run into problems. Under the supervision of Brigette Kamsler I have been taught how to process archival materials from three different collections and am almost done my fourth and final one. I also had the opportunity to attend one of the Burke staff meetings which focused on a review of the Library’s CUL/IS disaster response policy. It was very interesting to see some of these policies put into practice firsthand the following day when a significant amount of rain water caused some flooding. In addition to this meeting I was also able to attend a lecture at the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library which focused on the archival preservation of architectural records and blueprints. The lecture centered on issues related to digital preservation, how designers can best preserve a record of their work and how archivists should acquire and shape legacies of contemporary architectural practices.

Brigette also conducted a small meeting where we discussed resumes, CVs, cover letters and job interviews. This was a very informative experience and I was able to get a lot of great suggestions on how to improve my job application resources and also create an online presence for future employers to evaluate. I hope to create my own Weebly page this summer in order to better articulate the skills I have developed throughout my academic career. Outside of my work on the finding aids, I also did some more rudimentary work, stamping folders and assessing the overall archival holdings for audiovisual materials. While these are totally different aspects of the overall archival process they are still important ones.

The two collections I completed finding aids for after James H. Ecob were the papers of two American pastors and theologians: Frederick John Foakes Jackson and Allen Macy Dulles. Both of these individuals had distinguished academic and pastoral careers. Dulles is also known for being the father of John Foster Dulles, Dwight D. Eisenhower’s Secretary of State and Allen Welsh Dulles an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence. The Jackson papers consisted of a broad range of biographical documents, correspondence and memorabilia including two large notebooks in relatively poor condition. As a result of this, I was taught by Brigette how to properly wrap them in acid free paper and bind them. Dulles’ papers were considerably smaller consisting of a number of papers on the history and nature of apologetic. I found the Jackson papers to be particularly interesting as they consisted of a very diverse range of documents including a Honorary Doctoral Degree, obituaries, correspondence with UTS Presidents Arthur Cushman McGiffert and Henry Sloane Coffin, and a Form of Solemnization of Matrimony. The correspondence in particular contains significant information about Jackson and his academic position at Union Theological Seminary. The letters written after his death depressingly reveal that he unintentionally left his wife destitute and without financial means to support herself. Currently I am finishing up my last finding aid for the papers of David Dudley Field, a pastor and local historian in Connecticut who lived in the 1800s. This collection is made up of 4 notebooks that will be individually wrapped for preservation purposes.

During my brief time here I have had the opportunity to meet a number of incredible people while also learning how to effectively evaluate, inventory, process and store archival documents. I also was instructed in how to write and edit finding aids, create finding aid entries using EAD, update MARC catalog records using Voyager and upload completed finding aids onto Columbia’s website as digital assets. I hope to take more courses and attend lectures related to cataloging and other aspects of archives in order to build upon the solid foundation of archival skills I have acquired under Brigette’s supervision. Overall I learned the value of attention to detail in order to ensure that the finding aids adhere to the proper format improving accessibility to the archival collections.

As someone with a strong interest in history and primary source documents this has been an amazing experience. I hope the skills I have developed here will open up further opportunities for archive employment. Finally I would like to thank everyone here at the Burke library especially staff members Matthew Baker, Beth Bidlack, Liz Ridout Miraglia, training coordinator Meredith Solomon my fellow interns Margaret Kaczorowski, and Katherine Palm and most importantly Brigette Kamsler for accepting me as an intern and providing assistance and advice throughout my time here. It has truly been an unforgettable experience. If anyone finds themselves near Edmonton, Alberta feel free to let me know, I will try and keep in touch and stop by next time I am in New York City!